Using Classroom Videos to Enhance Teachers' Professional Learning

Kennedy K. H. CHAN, Monaliza M. CHIAN, Jeremy NG

 

Teacher quality is regarded as one of the most critical factors contributing to student learning (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Hattie, 2012). Accordingly, developing teacher quality is a high-leverage strategy for enhancing student educational achievement. Classroom videos are increasingly used to facilitate teacher professional learning. The use of video is grounded in contemporary approaches for augmenting teacher learning, which highlights the importance of situating teachers’ learning opportunities in their day-to-day classroom activities in addition to providing opportunities for teachers to work collaboratively to reflect on their teaching practices. Video is a rich medium that can capture the complexity, immediacy, and simultaneity of classroom interactions without losing authenticity (Sherin, 2004). Video not only allows teachers to freeze or slow down a particular classroom interaction for fine-grained analysis and reflection (Brophy, 2004) but also provides a springboard for teachers’ collective discussion and reflection (Borko et al., 2008).


While video-based teacher learning is promising, it also presents some challenges. Teachers can easily become distracted by irrelevant information during video viewing (Erickson, 2007). They also exhibit some tendency to use evaluative discourse rather than forming evidence-based interpretations when discussing videotaped teaching episodes (Nemirovsky et al., 2005; Sherin & van Es, 2009). Hence, video-embedded teacher professional learning activities need to be carefully designed. At a macro level, design decisions include: (1) identifying worthy teacher learning goals; (2) choosing an instructional approach; (3) designing video-embedded activities; (4) addressing the limitations of videos; (5) aligning assessments with instructional goals (Blomberg et al., 2013; Kang & van Es, 2019). At a more micro level, designers can consider various aspects of their video-embedded learning activities, as indicated in Table 1.


Table 1. Aspects to consider when designing video-embedded activities

Table 1. Aspects to consider when designing video-embedded activities
Table 1

Below are some relevant and timely school examples, internet resources, tools and scholarly contributions that raise issues, considerations and challenges for using videos to enhance teachers’ professional learning.


References


Ball, D., & Cohen, D. (1999). Developing practice, developing practitioners: Toward a practice-based theory of professional education. In L. Darling-Hammond & G. Sykes (Eds.), Teaching as the learning profession: Handbook of policy and practice (pp. 3-32). Jossey-Bass Publishers.


Borko, H., Jacobs, J., Eiteljorg, E., & Pittman, M. E. (2008). Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 417–436.


Brophy, J. (Ed.). (2004). Using video in teacher education. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8, 1.


Erickson, F. (2007). Ways of seeing video. In R. Goldman, R. Pea, B. Barron, & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Video Research in the Learning Sciences (pp. 145–155). Lawrence Erlbaum.


Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning. Routledge.


Kang, H., & van Es, E. A. (2019). Articulating design principles for productive use of video in preservice education. Journal of Teacher Education, 70(3), 237-250.


Nemirovsky, R., DiMattia, C., Ribeiro, B., & Lara-Meloy, T. (2005). Talking about teaching episodes. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 8(5), 363-392.


Putnam, R. T., & Borko, H. (2000). What do new views of knowledge and thinking have to say about research on teacher learning? Educational Researcher, 29(1), 4-15.


Sherin, M. G. (2004). New perspectives on the role of video in teacher education. In J. Brophy (Ed.), Using video in teacher education (pp. 1–28). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20–37.

Lifelong Learning
 

Highly-Cited Academic Articles


Borko, H., Jacobs, J., Eiteljorg, E., & Pittman, M. E. (2008). Video as a tool for fostering productive discussions in mathematics professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 417-436.


Gaudin, C., & Chaliès, S. (2015). Video viewing in teacher education and professional development: A literature review. Educational Research Review, 16, 41-67.


Sherin, M., & van Es, E. A. (2005). Using video to support teachers’ ability to notice classroom interactions. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(3), 475-491.


van Es, E. A., & Sherin, M. G. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ “learning to notice” in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(2), 244-276.

 

Articles Published in/about the Region


Botelho, M., & Bhuyan, S. Y. (2021). Reflection before and after clinical practice—Enhancing and broadening experience through self, peer, and teacher-guided learning. European Journal of Dental Education, 25(3), 480-487.


Chan, K. K. H., Xu, L., Cooper, R., Berry, A., & van Driel, J. H. (2021). Teacher noticing in science education: Do you see what I see?. Studies in Science Education, 57(1), 1-44.


Chan, K. K. H., Yu, S. K. K., & Sin, R. K. H. (2021). Using student actors and video-mediated reflection to promote pre-service teachers’ ability to enact responsive teaching. Innovations in Science Teacher Education, 6(1).


Chen, G., Chan, C. K., Chan, K. K., Clarke, S. N., & Resnick, L. B. (2020). Efficacy of video-based teacher professional development for increasing classroom discourse and student learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 29(4-5), 642-680.


Lam, D. S. H., & Chan, K. K. H. (2020). Characterising pre-service secondary science teachers’ noticing of different forms of evidence of student thinking. International Journal of Science Education, 42(4), 576-597.


Leung, J. S. C., Chan, K. K. H., & He, T. C. (2021). Student teachers’ metaphorical conceptualisations of the experience of watching themselves and their peers on video. Educational Studies, 47(3), 257-274.


Ng, O. L., & Park, M. (2021). Using an enhanced video-engagement innovation to support STEM teachers’ professional development in technology-based instruction. Educational Technology & Society, 24(4), 193-204.


Shek, M. M. P., Leung, K. C., & To, P. Y. L. (2021). Using a video annotation tool to enhance student-teachers’ reflective practices and communication competence in consultation practices through a collaborative learning community. Education and Information Technologies, 26(4), 4329-4352.

 

Practitioners-centered Resources


Published Articles

Types of video material: selection and capturing of video footages

Linsenmeier, K., & Sherin, M. G. (2007). What?, Wow!, and Hmm…: Video clips that promote discussion of student math thinking. Journal of Mathematics Education Leadership, 10, 32-41.


Sherin, M. G., & Dyer, E. B. (2017). Teacher self-captured video: Learning to see. Phi Delta Kappan, 98(7), 49–54.

Nature of the learning task: Individual video analysis/reflection

Knight, J. (2014). What you learn when you see yourself teach. Educational Leadership, 71(8), 18-23.


Knight, J., Bradley, B. A., Hock, M., Skrtic, T. M., Knight, D., Brasseur-Hock, I., ... & Hatton, C. (2012). Record, replay, reflect. The Learning Professional, 33(2), 18-23.


Sherin, M. G., Richards, J., & Altshuler, M. (2021). Learning from recording video of your own classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, 103(2), 44–48.


Nature of the learning task: collective video analysis, video coaching

Forsythe, M., & Johnson, H. (2017). What to see, what to say: Tips for participating in teacher video clubs. Tools for Learning Schools, 20(2), 1-7.


Knight, J., Elford, M., Hock, M., Dunekack, D., Bradley, B., Deshler, D. D., & Knight, D. (2015). 3 steps to great coaching. The Learning Professional, 36(1), 10.


Sherin, M. G., & Linsenmeier, K. A. (2011). Pause, rewind, reflect: Video clubs throw open the classroom doors. The Learning Professional, 32(5), 38-41.


Tools and scaffolds for analysis and/or discussion of video

Alonzo, A. C., & Kim, J. (2018). Affordances of video-based professional development for supporting physics teachers’ judgments about evidence of student thinking. Teaching and Teacher Education, 76, 283–297.


McFadden, J., Ellis, J., Anwar, T., & Roehrig, G. (2014). Beginning science teachers’ use of a digital video annotation tool to promote reflective practices. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 23(3), 458-470.


Books

Baecher, L. (2019). Video in teacher learning: Through their own eyes. Corwin Press.


Knight, J. (2014). Focus on teaching: Using videos for high-impact instruction. Corwin Press.

 

HKU Hub


Chan, K. K. H. (2020). Using innovative video technologies to promote pre-service science teachers' responsiveness.


Faculty of Education. (n.d.). New tools puts focus on classroom talk. The University of Hong Kong.

 

Internet Resources


Websites


Center to Support Excellence in Teaching. (n.d.). CEST professional learning. Stanford Graduate School of Education.


Estes, R. (2019). 5 tips for using videos as a professional learning tool for teachers. Frontier Education.


Vosaic. (n.d.). Video coaching, observation, & analysis blog.


Videos

Edutopia. (2018, October 23). Using video for professional development.


Frontline Education. (2020, January 30). 5 ways videos can transform classroom instruction.


TED (2013, May 8). Bill Gates: Teachers need real feedback.

 

Tools and Devices


Video capturing


Swivl

Swivl.


Wearable cameras

GoPro.


Holt, S. (2014, November 8). Inventio HD video sunglasses review. The Gadgeteer.


Insta360.


Cameras for shooting 360 panoramic videos


GoPro.


Insta360.


Theta.


Video annotation and analysis


College of Education and Human Development. (n.d.) VideoAnt. University of Minnesota.


Technology-Enriched Learning Initiative. (n.d.). VideoVox. The University of Hong Kong. (Contact Professor Michael G. Botehlo, botelho@hku.hk)


Torshtalent.


Vosaic.


Classroom discourse analyser


Faculty of Education. (2021). V2elearn. The University of Hong Kong.

(Contact Dr. Gaowei Chen, gwchen@hku.hk)


Extended Readings


Tools for capturing video footages


Estapa, A., & Amador, J. (2016). Wearable cameras as a tool to capture preservice teachers’ marked and recorded noticing. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 24(3), 281-307.


Franklin, R. K., Mitchell, J. O. N., Walters, K. S., Livingston, B., Lineberger, M. B., Putman, C., ... & Karges-Bone, L. (2018). Using Swivl robotic technology in teacher education preparation: A pilot study. TechTrends, 62(2), 184-189.


Kosko, K. W., Ferdig, R. E., & Zolfaghari, M. (2021). Preservice teachers’ professional noticing when viewing standard and 360 video. Journal of Teacher Education, 72(3), 284-297.


Types of video material: selection and capturing of video footages


Sherin, M. G., Linsenmeier, K. A., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Selecting video clips to promote mathematics teachers' discussion of student thinking. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), 213-230.


Zhang, M., Lundeberg, M., Koehler, M. J., & Eberhardt, J. (2011). Understanding affordances and challenges of three types of video for teacher professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 27(2), 454-462.


Nature of the learning task: Individual video analysis/reflection


Santagata, R., Zannoni, C., & Stigler, J. W. (2007). The role of lesson analysis in pre-service teacher education: An empirical investigation of teacher learning from a virtual video-based field experience. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 10(2), 123-140.


Nature of the learning task: Collective video analysis/discussion/reflection/video coaching


van der Linden, S., van der Meij, J., & McKenney, S. (2022). Teacher video coaching, from design features to student impacts: A systematic literature review. Review of Educational Research, 92(1), 114-165.


Sherin, M. G., & Han, S. Y. (2004). Teacher learning in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20(2), 163-183.


Sherin, M. G., & van Es, E. A. (2009). Effects of video club participation on teachers’ professional vision. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(1), 20–37.


Tools and scaffolds for analysis and discussion of video


Alonzo, A. C., & Kim, J. (2018). Affordances of video-based professional development for supporting physics teachers’ judgments about evidence of student thinking. Teaching and Teacher Education, 76, 283–297.


Involvement and role of facilitator


van Es, E. A., Tunney, J., Goldsmith, L. T., & Seago, N. (2014). A framework for the facilitation of teachers’ analysis of video. Journal of Teacher Education, 65(4), 340-356.


General references


Blomberg, G., Renkl, A., Gamoran Sherin, M., Borko, H., & Seidel, T. (2013). Five research-based heuristics for using video in pre-service teacher education. Journal for Educational Research Online, 5(1), 90-114.


Borko, H., Koellner, K., Jacobs, J., & Seago, N. (2011). Using video representations of teaching in practice-based professional development programs. ZDM, 43(1), 175-187.


van Es, E. A., Cashen, M., Barnhart, T., & Auger, A. (2017). Learning to notice mathematics instruction: Using video to develop preservice teachers’ vision of ambitious pedagogy. Cognition and Instruction, 35(3), 165-187.


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References in this site to any specific resources and tools are for the information and convenience of the public only. They do not constitute ownership or endorsement by ALiTE of any opinions offered by any corporation, organisation, or individual.

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