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Laure CHEN, Lily LEI, Monaliza Maximo CHIAN, Ling CHE

Assessment in education serves to enhance the quality of education. Macro-level assessments aim to provide accountability, qualifications, and accreditation at the institutional, programme, and individual levels; classroom assessments serve to support and improve the teaching process and students’ learning. Thus, both educators and learners need to strengthen their assessment literacy, i.e. the capability for teachers to adopt appropriate assessment methodologies to improve students’ learning, and to analyse, interpret and evaluate performance data; and the capability for students to assess and evaluate their own learning. While assessment of learning (AoL) focuses on determining students’ performance to learning objectives; assessment for learning (AfL) and assessment as learning (AaL) focus on the process of learning. Assessment for learning (AfL) is a process of gathering information about students’ learning, which informs teachers to modify their teaching with differentiated instruction and feedback for students to enhance their learning. Assessment as Learning (AaL) engages students in reflecting on and monitoring their learning progress, usually through self and peer assessment.

COVID-19 has called for an unexpected and temporary shift to online learning, i.e. emergency remote teaching (ERT), resulting in an increased reliance on digital assessment which enables comprehensive monitoring of students’ progress, exchanging immediate and personalised feedback, diminishing time and/or location restrictions, and evaluating generic skills, including collaboration and problem-solving skills (Nguyen et al., 2017; Timmis et al., 2016).

Below are some relevant and timely school examples, internet resources, and scholarly contributions that raise issues, considerations, and challenges as we strive to continually advance our knowledge on assessment to adapt to changing conditions on education.



Highly-Cited Academic Articles (Based on analysed results from Web of Science)


Articles Published in/about the Region


School Examples




Internet Resources

YouTube Videos



Extended Readings



References in this site to any specific resources and tools are for the information and convenience of the public only. They do not constitute ownership or endorsement by ALiTE of any of the opinions offered by any corporation or organisation or individual.


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